Java (programming language)

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“Java language” redirects here. For the natural language from the Indonesian island of Java, see Javanese language.
This article is about a programming language. For the software package downloaded from java.com, see Java SE.
Not to be confused with JavaScript.
Java
Java programming language logo.svg
Paradigm Multi-paradigm: Object-oriented (class-based), structured, imperative, generic, reflective, concurrent
Designed by James Gosling
Developer Sun Microsystems (now owned by Oracle Corporation)
First appeared May 23, 1995; 21 years ago (1995-05-23)[1]
Typing discipline Static, strong, safe, nominative, manifest
License GNU General Public License, Java Community Process
Filename extensions .java, .class, .jar
Website www.oracle.com/java/
Major implementations
OpenJDK, GNU Compiler for Java (GCJ), many others
Dialects
Generic Java, Pizza
Influenced by
Ada 83, C++,[2] C#,[3] Eiffel,[4] Generic Java, Mesa,[5] Modula-3,[6] Oberon,[7] Objective-C,[8] UCSD Pascal,[9][10] Object Pascal[11]
Influenced
Ada 2005, BeanShell, C#, Chapel,[12] Clojure, ECMAScript, Fantom, Groovy, Hack,[13] Haxe, J#, JavaScript, Kotlin, PHP, Python, Scala, Seed7, Vala

Java is a general-purpose computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented,[14] and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers “write once, run anywhere” (WORA),[15] meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation.[16] Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture. As of 2016, Java is one of the most popular programming languages in use,[17][18][19][20] particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 9 million developers.[21] Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle Corporation) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems’ Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them.

The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were originally released by Sun under proprietary licences. As of May 2007, in compliance with the specifications of the Java Community Process, Sun relicensed most of its Java technologies under the GNU General Public License. Others have also developed alternative implementations of these Sun technologies, such as the GNU Compiler for Java (bytecode compiler), GNU Classpath (standard libraries), and IcedTea-Web (browser plugin for applets).

The latest version is Java 8, which is the only version currently supported for free by Oracle, although earlier versions are supported both by Oracle and other companies on a commercial basis.

History

Duke, the Java mascot

James Gosling, the creator of Java (2008)

The TIOBE programming language popularity index graph from 2002 to 2015. Over the course of a decade Java (blue) and C (black) competing for the top position.

James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton initiated the Java language project in June 1991.[22] Java was originally designed for interactive television, but it was too advanced for the digital cable television industry at the time.[23] The language was initially called Oak after an oak tree that stood outside Gosling’s office. Later the project went by the name Green and was finally renamed Java, from Java coffee.[24] Gosling designed Java with a C/C++-style syntax that system and application programmers would find familiar.[25]

Sun Microsystems released the first public implementation as Java 1.0 in 1995.[26] It promised “Write Once, Run Anywhere” (WORA), providing no-cost run-times on popular platforms. Fairly secure and featuring configurable security, it allowed network- and file-access restrictions. Major web browsers soon incorporated the ability to run Java applets within web pages, and Java quickly became popular, while mostly outside of browsers, that wasn’t the original plan. In January 2016, Oracle announced that Java runtime environments based on JDK 9 will discontinue the browser plugin.[27] The Java 1.0 compiler was re-written in Java by Arthur van Hoff to comply strictly with the Java 1.0 language specification.[28] With the advent of Java 2 (released initially as J2SE 1.2 in December 1998 – 1999), new versions had multiple configurations built for different types of platforms. J2EE included technologies and APIs for enterprise applications typically run in server environments, while J2ME featured APIs optimized for mobile applications. The desktop version was renamed J2SE. In 2006, for marketing purposes, Sun renamed new J2 versions as Java EE, Java ME, and Java SE, respectively.

In 1997, Sun Microsystems approached the ISO/IEC JTC 1 standards body and later the Ecma International to formalize Java, but it soon withdrew from the process.[29][30][31] Java remains a de facto standard, controlled through the Java Community Process.[32] At one time, Sun made most of its Java implementations available without charge, despite their proprietary software status. Sun generated revenue from Java through the selling of licenses for specialized products such as the Java Enterprise System.

On November 13, 2006, Sun released much of its Java virtual machine (JVM) as free and open-source software, (FOSS), under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL). On May 8, 2007, Sun finished the process, making all of its JVM’s core code available under free software/open-source distribution terms, aside from a small portion of code to which Sun did not hold the copyright.[33]

Sun’s vice-president Rich Green said that Sun’s ideal role with regard to Java was as an “evangelist”.[34] Following Oracle Corporation‘s acquisition of Sun Microsystems in 2009–10, Oracle has described itself as the “steward of Java technology with a relentless commitment to fostering a community of participation and transparency”.[35] This did not prevent Oracle from filing a lawsuit against Google shortly after that for using Java inside the Android SDK (see Google section below). Java software runs on everything from laptops to data centers, game consoles to scientific supercomputers.[36] On April 2, 2010, James Gosling resigned from Oracle.[37]

Principles

There were five primary goals in the creation of the Java language:[16]

  1. It must be “simple, object-oriented, and familiar”.
  2. It must be “robust and secure”.
  3. It must be “architecture-neutral and portable”.
  4. It must execute with “high performance”.
  5. It must be “interpreted, threaded, and dynamic”.

Versions

Main article: Java version history

As of 2015[update], only Java 8 is officially supported. Major release versions of Java, along with their release dates:

  • JDK 1.0 (January 23, 1996)[38]
  • JDK 1.1 (February 19, 1997)
  • J2SE 1.2 (December 8, 1998)
  • J2SE 1.3 (May 8, 2000)
  • J2SE 1.4 (February 6, 2002)
  • J2SE 5.0 (September 30, 2004)
  • Java SE 6 (December 11, 2006)
  • Java SE 7 (July 28, 2011)
  • Java SE 8 (March 18, 2014)

Practices

Java platform


One design goal of Java is portability, which means that programs written for the Java platform must run similarly on any combination of hardware and operating system with adequate runtime support. This is achieved by compiling the Java language code to an intermediate representation called Java bytecode, instead of directly to architecture-specific machine code. Java bytecode instructions are analogous to machine code, but they are intended to be executed by a virtual machine (VM) written specifically for the host hardware. End users commonly use a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) installed on their own machine for standalone Java applications, or in a web browser for Java applets.

Standard libraries provide a generic way to access host-specific features such as graphics, threading, and networking.

The use of universal bytecode makes porting simple. However, the overhead of interpreting bytecode into machine instructions makes interpreted programs almost always run more slowly than native executables. However, just-in-time (JIT) compilers that compile bytecodes to machine code during runtime were introduced from an early stage. Java itself is platform-independent, and is adapted to the particular platform it is to run on by a Java virtual machine for it, which translates the Java bytecode into the platform’s machine language.[39]

Implementations

Oracle Corporation is the current owner of the official implementation of the Java SE platform, following their acquisition of Sun Microsystems on January 27, 2010. This implementation is based on the original implementation of Java by Sun. The Oracle implementation is available for Microsoft Windows (still works for XP, while only later versions currently officially supported), Mac OS X, Linux and Solaris. Because Java lacks any formal standardization recognized by Ecma International, ISO/IEC, ANSI, or other third-party standards organization, the Oracle implementation is the de facto standard.

The Oracle implementation is packaged into two different distributions: The Java Runtime Environment (JRE) which contains the parts of the Java SE platform required to run Java programs and is intended for end users, and the Java Development Kit (JDK), which is intended for software developers and includes development tools such as the Java compiler, Javadoc, Jar, and a debugger.

OpenJDK is another notable Java SE implementation that is licensed under the GNU GPL. The implementation started when Sun began releasing the Java source code under the GPL. As of Java SE 7, OpenJDK is the official Java reference implementation.

The goal of Java is to make all implementations of Java compatible. Historically, Sun’s trademark license for usage of the Java brand insists that all implementations be “compatible”. This resulted in a legal dispute with Microsoft after Sun claimed that the Microsoft implementation did not support RMI or JNI and had added platform-specific features of their own. Sun sued in 1997, and in 2001 won a settlement of US$20 million, as well as a court order enforcing the terms of the license from Sun.[40] As a result, Microsoft no longer ships Java with Windows.

Platform-independent Java is essential to Java EE, and an even more rigorous validation is required to certify an implementation. This environment enables portable server-side applications.

Performance

Main article: Java performance

Programs written in Java have a reputation for being slower and requiring more memory than those written in C++.[41][42] However, Java programs’ execution speed improved significantly with the introduction of just-in-time compilation in 1997/1998 for Java 1.1,[43] the addition of language features supporting better code analysis (such as inner classes, the StringBuilder class, optional assertions, etc.), and optimizations in the Java virtual machine, such as HotSpot becoming the default for Sun’s JVM in 2000. With Java 1.5, the performance was improved with the addition of the java.util.concurrent package, including Lock free implementations of the ConcurrentMaps and other multi-core collections, and it was improved further Java 1.6.

Some platforms offer direct hardware support for Java; there are microcontrollers that can run Java in hardware instead of a software Java virtual machine, and ARM based processors can have hardware support for executing Java bytecode through their Jazelle option (while its support is mostly dropped in current implementations of ARM).

Automatic memory management

Java uses an automatic garbage collector to manage memory in the object lifecycle. The programmer determines when objects are created, and the Java runtime is responsible for recovering the memory once objects are no longer in use. Once no references to an object remain, the unreachable memory becomes eligible to be freed automatically by the garbage collector. Something similar to a memory leak may still occur if a programmer’s code holds a reference to an object that is no longer needed, typically when objects that are no longer needed are stored in containers that are still in use. If methods for a nonexistent object are called, a “null pointer exception” is thrown.[44][45]

One of the ideas behind Java’s automatic memory management model is that programmers can be spared the burden of having to perform manual memory management. In some languages, memory for the creation of objects is implicitly allocated on the stack, or explicitly allocated and deallocated from the heap. In the latter case the responsibility of managing memory resides with the programmer. If the program does not deallocate an object, a memory leak occurs. If the program attempts to access or deallocate memory that has already been deallocated, the result is undefined and difficult to predict, and the program is likely to become unstable and/or crash. This can be partially remedied by the use of smart pointers, but these add overhead and complexity. Note that garbage collection does not prevent “logical” memory leaks, i.e., those where the memory is still referenced but never used.

Garbage collection may happen at any time. Ideally, it will occur when a program is idle. It is guaranteed to be triggered if there is insufficient free memory on the heap to allocate a new object; this can cause a program to stall momentarily. Explicit memory management is not possible in Java.

Java does not support C/C++ style pointer arithmetic, where object addresses and unsigned integers (usually long integers) can be used interchangeably. This allows the garbage collector to relocate referenced objects and ensures type safety and security.

As in C++ and some other object-oriented languages, variables of Java’s primitive data types are either stored directly in fields (for objects) or on the stack (for methods) rather than on the heap, as is commonly true for non-primitive data types (but see escape analysis). This was a conscious decision by Java’s designers for performance reasons.

Java contains multiple types of garbage collectors. By default,[citation needed] HotSpot uses the parallel scavenge garbage collector. However, there are also several other garbage collectors that can be used to manage the heap. For 90% of applications in Java, the Concurrent Mark-Sweep (CMS) garbage collector is sufficient.[46] Oracle aims to replace CMS with the Garbage-First collector (G1).[47]

Criticism

Main article: Criticism of Java

Criticisms directed at Java include the implementation of generics,[53] speed,[54] the handling of unsigned numbers,[55] the implementation of floating-point arithmetic,[56] and a history of security vulnerabilities in the primary Java VM implementation HotSpot.[57]

Use outside of the Java platform

The Java programming language requires the presence of a software platform in order for compiled programs to be executed. Oracle supplies the Java platform for use with Java. The Android SDK, is an alternative software platform, used primarily for developing Android applications.

Android

The Android operating system makes extensive use of Java-related technology.

The Java language is a key pillar in Android, an open source mobile operating system. Although Android, built on the Linux kernel, is written largely in C, the Android SDK uses the Java language as the basis for Android applications. The bytecode language supported by the Android SDK is incompatible with Java bytecode and runs on its own virtual machine, optimized for low-memory devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Depending on the Android version, the bytecode is either interpreted by the Dalvik virtual machine, or compiled into native code by the Android Runtime.

Android does not provide the full Java SE standard library, although the Android SDK does include an independent implementation of a large subset of it. It supports Java 6 and some Java 7 features, offering an implementation compatible with the standard library (Apache Harmony).

Controversy

The use of Java-related technology in Android led to a legal dispute between Oracle and Google. On May 7, 2012, a San Francisco jury found that if APIs could be copyrighted, then Google had infringed Oracle’s copyrights by the use of Java in Android devices.[58] District Judge William Haskell Alsup ruled on May 31, 2012, that APIs cannot be copyrighted,[59] but this was reversed by the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in May 2014.[60] On May 26, 2016, the district court decided in favor of Google, ruling the copyright infringement of the Java API in Android constitutes fair use.[61]

Class libraries

Main article: Java Class Library

The Java Class Library is the standard library, developed to support application development in Java. It is controlled by Sun Microsystems in cooperation with others through the Java Community Process program. Companies or individuals participating in this process can influence the design and development of the APIs. This process has been a subject of controversy.[when?] The class library contains features such as:

Documentation

Main article: Javadoc

Javadoc is a comprehensive documentation system, created by Sun Microsystems, used by many Java developers[by whom?]. It provides developers with an organized system for documenting their code. Javadoc comments have an extra asterisk at the beginning, i.e. the delimiters are /** and */, whereas the normal multi-line comments in Java are set off with the delimiters /* and */.[65]

Editions

Sun has defined and supports four editions of Java targeting different application environments and segmented many of its APIs so that they belong to one of the platforms. The platforms are:

The classes in the Java APIs are organized into separate groups called packages. Each package contains a set of related interfaces, classes and exceptions. Refer to the separate platforms for a description of the packages available.[relevant to this section? ]

Sun also provided an edition called PersonalJava that has been superseded by later, standards-based Java ME configuration-profile pairings.

See also

Comparison of Java with other languages

Notes

  1. Jump up ^ Binstock, Andrew (20 May 2015). “Java’s 20 Years Of Innovation”. Forbes. Retrieved 18 March 2016. 
  2. Jump up ^ Harry. H. Chaudhary (28 July 2014). “Cracking The Java Programming Interview :: 2000+ Java Interview Que/Ans”. Retrieved 29 May 2016. 
  3. Jump up ^ Java 5.0 added several new language features (the enhanced for loop, autoboxing, varargs and annotations), after they were introduced in the similar (and competing) C# language [1] [2]
  4. Jump up ^ Gosling, James; McGilton, Henry (May 1996). “The Java Language Environment”. 
  5. Jump up ^ Gosling, James; Joy, Bill; Steele, Guy; Bracha, Gilad. “The Java Language Specification, 2nd Edition”. 
  6. Jump up ^ “The A-Z of Programming Languages: Modula-3”. Computerworld.com.au. Retrieved 2010-06-09. 
  7. Jump up ^ Niklaus Wirth stated on a number of public occasions, e.g. in a lecture at the Polytechnic Museum, Moscow in September, 2005 (several independent first-hand accounts in Russian exist, e.g. one with an audio recording: Filippova, Elena (September 22, 2005). “Niklaus Wirth’s lecture at the Polytechnic Museum in Moscow”. ), that the Sun Java design team licensed the Oberon compiler sources a number of years prior to the release of Java and examined it: a (relative) compactness, type safety, garbage collection, no multiple inheritance for classes – all these key overall design features are shared by Java and Oberon.
  8. Jump up ^ Patrick Naughton cites Objective-C as a strong influence on the design of the Java programming language, stating that notable direct derivatives include Java interfaces (derived from Objective-C’s protocol) and primitive wrapper classes. [3]
  9. Jump up ^ TechMetrix Research (1999). “History of Java” (PDF). Java Application Servers Report. The project went ahead under the name “green” and the language was based on an old model of UCSD Pascal, which makes it possible to generate interpretive code 
  10. Jump up ^ “A Conversation with James Gosling – ACM Queue”. Queue.acm.org. 2004-08-31. Retrieved 2010-06-09. 
  11. Jump up ^ In the summer of 1996, Sun was designing the precursor to what is now the event model of the AWT and the JavaBeans TM component architecture. Borland contributed greatly to this process. We looked very carefully at Delphi Object Pascal and built a working prototype of bound method references in order to understand their interaction with the Java programming language and its APIs.White Paper About Microsoft’s “Delegates”
  12. Jump up ^ “Chapel spec (Acknowledgements)” (PDF). Cray Inc. 2015-10-01. Retrieved 2016-01-14. 
  13. Jump up ^ “Facebook Q&A: Hack brings static typing to PHP world”. InfoWorld. 2014-03-26. Retrieved 2015-01-11. 
  14. Jump up ^ Gosling et al. 2014, p. 1.
  15. Jump up ^ “Write once, run anywhere?”. Computer Weekly. 2002-05-02. Retrieved 2009-07-27. 
  16. ^ Jump up to: a b c “1.2 Design Goals of the Java™ Programming Language”. Oracle. 1999-01-01. Retrieved 2013-01-14. 
  17. Jump up ^ McMillan, Robert (2013-08-01). “Is Java Losing Its Mojo?”. wired.com. Java is on the wane, at least according to one outfit that keeps on eye on the ever-changing world of computer programming languages. For more than a decade, it has dominated the TIOBE Programming Community Index, and is back on top – a snapshot of software developer enthusiasm that looks at things like internet search results to measure how much buzz different languages have. But lately, Java has been slipping. 
  18. Jump up ^ RedMonk Index on redmonk.com (Stephen O’Grady, January 2015)
  19. Jump up ^ “Programming Language Popularity”. langpop.com. 2013-10-25. Retrieved 2015-04-02. Normalized Comparison: 1st C, 2nd Java, 3rd PHP 
  20. Jump up ^ “TIOBE Programming Community Index”. 2015. Retrieved 2015-04-03. 
  21. Jump up ^ “JavaOne 2013 Review: Java Takes on the Internet of Things”. http://www.oracle.com. Retrieved 2016-06-19. 
  22. Jump up ^ Byous, Jon (c. 1998). “Java technology: The early years”. Sun Developer Network. Sun Microsystems. Archived from the original on 2005-04-20. Retrieved 2005-04-22. 
  23. Jump up ^ Object-oriented programming “The History of Java Technology”. Sun Developer Network. c. 1995. Retrieved 2010-04-30. 
  24. Jump up ^ So why did they decide to call it Java?“, Kieron Murphy, JavaWorld.com, 10/04/96
  25. Jump up ^ Kabutz, Heinz; Once Upon an Oak. Artima. Retrieved April 29, 2007.
  26. Jump up ^ “The History of Java Technology”. Retrieved October 6, 2012. 
  27. Jump up ^ https://blogs.oracle.com/java-platform-group/entry/moving_to_a_plugin_free
  28. Jump up ^ Object-oriented Programming with Java: Essentials and Applications. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 34. 
  29. Jump up ^ “JSG – Java Study Group”. open-std.org. 
  30. Jump up ^ “Why Java™ Was – Not – Standardized Twice” (PDF). 
  31. Jump up ^ “What is ECMA—and why Microsoft cares”. 
  32. Jump up ^ “Java Community Process website”. Jcp.org. 2010-05-24. Retrieved 2010-06-09. 
  33. Jump up ^ “JAVAONE: Sun – The bulk of Java is open sourced”. GrnLight.net. Retrieved 2014-05-26. 
  34. Jump up ^ “Sun’s Evolving Role as Java Evangelist”. O’Reilly Media. 
  35. Jump up ^ “Oracle and Java”. oracle.com. Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 2010-08-23. Oracle has been a leading and substantive supporter of Java since its emergence in 1995 and takes on the new role as steward of Java technology with a relentless commitment to fostering a community of participation and transparency. 
  36. Jump up ^ “Learn About Java Technology”. Oracle. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  37. Jump up ^ Gosling, James (April 9, 2010). “Time to move on…”. On a New Road. Retrieved 2011-11-16. 
  38. Jump up ^ JAVASOFT SHIPS JAVA 1.0 at the Wayback Machine (archived March 10, 2007)
  39. Jump up ^ “Is the JVM (Java Virtual Machine) platform dependent or platform independent? What is the advantage of using the JVM, and having Java be a translated language?”. Programmer Interview. Retrieved 2015-01-19. 
  40. Jump up ^ Niccolai, James (January 23, 2001). “Sun, Microsoft settle Java lawsuit”. JavaWorld. International Data Group. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  41. Jump up ^ Jelovic, Dejan. “Why Java will always be slower than C++”. Retrieved 2008-02-15. 
  42. Jump up ^ Google. “Loop Recognition in C++/Java/Go/Scala” (PDF). Retrieved 2012-07-12. 
  43. Jump up ^ “Symantec’s Just-In-Time Java Compiler To Be Integrated into Sun JDK 1.1”. 
  44. Jump up ^ “NullPointerException”. Oracle. Retrieved 2014-05-06. 
  45. Jump up ^ “Exceptions in Java”. Artima.com. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 
  46. Jump up ^ “Java HotSpot VM Options”. Oracle.com. 2010-09-07. Retrieved 2012-06-30. 
  47. Jump up ^ http://docs.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/vm/G1.html
  48. Jump up ^ “Operator Overloading (C# vs Java)”. C# for Java Developers. Microsoft. Retrieved 10 December 2014. 
  49. Jump up ^ “Multiple Inheritance of State, Implementation, and Type”. The Java™ Tutorials. Oracle. Retrieved 10 December 2014. 
  50. Jump up ^ “Lesson: A Closer Look at the “Hello World!” Application”. The Java™ Tutorials > Getting Started. Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 2011-04-14. 
  51. Jump up ^ “Using applet, object and embed Tags”. oracle.com. Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  52. Jump up ^ “Deploying Applets in a Mixed-Browser Environment”. oracle.com. Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  53. Jump up ^ Arnold, Ken. “Generics Considered Harmful”. java.net. Retrieved 4 July 2011. 
  54. Jump up ^ Jelovic, Dejan. “Why Java Will Always Be Slower than C++”. http://www.jelovic.com. Retrieved 17 October 2012. 
  55. Jump up ^ Owens, Sean R. “Java and unsigned int, unsigned short, unsigned byte, unsigned long, etc. (Or rather, the lack thereof)”. Archived from the original on 2009-02-20. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  56. Jump up ^ Kahan, William. “How Java’s Floating-Point Hurts Everyone Everywhere” (PDF). Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  57. Jump up ^ “Have you checked the Java?”. 
  58. Jump up ^ Mullin, Joe. “Google guilty of infringement in Oracle trial; future legal headaches loom”. Law & Disorder. Ars Technica. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  59. Jump up ^ Joe Mullin (May 31, 2012). “Google wins crucial API ruling, Oracle’s case decimated”. Ars Technica. Retrieved 2012-06-01. 
  60. Jump up ^ Rosenblatt, Seth (May 9, 2014). “Court sides with Oracle over Android in Java patent appeal”. CNET. Retrieved 2014-05-10. 
  61. Jump up ^ Mullin, Joe (26 May 2016). “Google beats Oracle—Android makes “fair use” of Java APIs”. Ars Technica. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  62. Jump up ^ “Collections Framework Overview”. Java Documentation. Oracle. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  63. Jump up ^ “Java™ Security Overview”. Java Documentation. Oracle. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  64. Jump up ^ “Trail: Internationalization”. The Java™ Tutorials. Oracle. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  65. Jump up ^ “How to Write Doc Comments for the Javadoc Tool”. Oracle Technology Network. Oracle. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  66. Jump up ^ “Java Card Overview”. Oracle Technology Network. Oracle. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  67. Jump up ^ “Java Platform, Micro Edition (Java ME)”. Oracle Technology Network. Oracle. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  68. Jump up ^ “Java SE”. Oracle Technology Network. Oracle. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 
  69. Jump up ^ “Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE)”. Oracle Technology Network. Oracle. Retrieved 18 December 2014. 

References

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